Once More, With Feeling: Draws and Drawbacks of Sentiment Analysis

Our Project

Opinions tend to reflect feelings as well as beliefs. Sentiment analysis, also known as opinion mining, is a technique used today for generating data on trends in people’s attitudes and feelings on anything from products and services to current events. This data is created by calculating sentiment scores using what people have said or written. Despite the efforts of computer scientists, semanticists and statisticians to figure out ways to program computers to identify the feelings expressed in words, the technique of sentiment analysis is still at best only reliable as a starting point for closer readings.

The results of sentiment analysis can quickly become misleading if presented without any reference to the actual passages of text that were analyzed. Nevertheless, it is helpful as a technique for delving into large corpora and collections of unstructured texts to capture trends and shifts in sentiment intensity.

For a final collaborative project of the academic year 2015-2016, our team at the Digital Projects Studio decided to take on the challenge of visualizing the intensity of emotions and opinions expressed during the 2016 primary election debates. (Click here to see the final product). Our dataset was a set of complete transcripts for twelve Republican and eight Democratic debates. To process the data, we filtered out interventions of moderators and interjections from the audience, ran the statements of each candidate through a sentiment analyzer from Python’s NLTK (Natural Language ToolKit) library, and indexed the statements of each candidate by debate number, numeric sentiment score, and sentiment category.

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Customizing Applications in Django

This post is a follow-up to the introduction to the Field Notebook and the demo notebook, ‘Monumental Gifts’. I will go over how to install the app and start customizing your own web-based Field Notebook. This post will focus on how to start tailoring the models and appearance of your Notebook to suit your needs for your research. If you are interested (or discover later that you are interested) in building your own original application from scratch, I recommend working through the Beginner’s Tutorial on Django’s website. In fact, even if you don’t plan on building your own application, I still recommend the tutorial. You’ll have better understanding of how to modify and use your Field Notebook if you become familiar with how Django works as a framework.

Installing the app

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Creating Bar Chart using D3

D3.js is a JavaScript library for creating data-driven documents. D3.js helps to visualize data using HTML, SVG, and CSS.This interactive visualization, makes it easier to communicate stories about data. In this blog, we will cover the basic of

In this blog, we will cover the basics of creating a bar chart using a given set of data in D3.js.

What will you need:

  1. MS Excel – to create a csv file
  2. A text editor like Sublime text
  3. XAMPP

Step 1: Create CSV file

Prepare some sample data in excel and save it as a CSV file.  Here is some unemployment data for the US in the month of Jan from 2005 to 2015


Here, Year and Jan – headers for the two columns will act as properties of data when you bring it in.

Step 2: Create HTML file

Here is the basic template to start off your HTML file. Make sure to save this HTML file in the same folder as your CSV file.

[gist https://gist.github.com/noureend/a4687f25d5c0021d63ad]


Step 3:

In order to do this, you will want to do this on a server as most browsers won’t render it. I am using XAMPP.

The function to fetch the data to D3 is:

[gist https://gist.github.com/noureend/3af22c1e6f00bee9d12c]


Because our data is in a csv file, we call d3.csv. If your data is in json format you could call d3.json.

Then, we specify our arguments.

  • The first argument is the path to the data file. Since, my data file is in the same folder as the HTML file, I can just specify the name of the data file.
  • The second argument is a callback function.

Step 4: Create a SVG container

We specify the basic size of our SVG container using the attr function

We create a variable called canvas which then becomes a shortcut for calling the code on the right of the equal to sign.

[gist https://gist.github.com/noureend/2967002b5eac58921e13]


Step 5: Creating Bars

It’s now time to add our bars for the bar graph.

[gist https://gist.github.com/noureend/38e6f123a9a0cbd8e3e1]


We refer back to the data that we created earlier as an argument to our callback function. Which in turn references the data stored in our file.

Next, using the enter method we will append a rectangle for each data element and give it some properties (width, height, y position, and color).

You will notice that the width and y position are functions. The reason for this is you want to specify which data property you are referencing with the ‘d’ variable. The “* 10” multiplies the data by 10 and the bars get bigger.

For the ‘y’ attribute is a function of the index. We want to return the index for each data element, then times it by 50.

Step 6: Adding text to the bars

[gist https://gist.github.com/noureend/0c4c53d728117cc6a90c]


To add text, we will append “text”, specify the color of the text. The most important thing here is perhaps the ‘y’ attribute. You want the text of each bar to the at the same position as the bar so that you can see which text belongs where. Therefore, similar to the above, copy the ‘y’ attribute (vertical position for the text).

Lastly, you want to specify what text you want to have. So, let the text property be a function of data and return the ‘Month’ property.

Now, open the file in your browser and you should see this:








Django For Digital Humanities


A few weeks ago a researcher came to the Digital Projects Studio for help in getting his research out to a larger audience. His project, on Jewish cafes, had a plethora of information ranging from details on the cafes themselves to the cities and the famous people who had frequented the cafes. Some of the cafes had been destroyed during World War II and others are still in existence today. This is the story of bringing the Jewish Cafes project online.

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